Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique in which electrodes pass weak electrical current through the scalp to modulate cortical excitability [1,2]. The technique has been applied to a diverse range of behavioral and clinical studies. For example, tDCS during a motor task was shown to increase the rate of implicit motor learning [3]. Additionally, tDCS was shown to increase working memory performance and enhance selective attention [4]. Clinically, tDCS has been shown to improve motor function in patients with chronic stroke [5] and Parkinson’s disease [6,7], alleviate depression and bipolar disorder [8], and treat addiction by reducing drug craving [9,10].

tDCS is thought to modulate cortical excitability during stimulation with poststimulation changes that can exceed the original duration of stimulation. Measured...

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