Numerous medical interventional procedures, such as brachytherapy, biopsy, radio frequency based thermal ablation, and anesthetic drug delivery, require precise placement of needles. Most of these interventions are performed percutaneously. However, precise placement of the needle to a specific target inside human body is a difficult task. Furthermore, the involved needles are usually rigid and straight, and real-time sensory feedback of the needle is rarely available. Medical imaging and interventional delivery systems have undergone significant growth in the recent years, but the development of needles for percutaneous interventions for clinical amiability is undergoing a slow progress. Also, most of the clinically used needles are several decades old in design. Controlling the needle to reach the target precisely through a desired trajectory by the guidance of quantitative sensory feedbacks could benefit various medical procedures. Accurate and safe navigation of the needle to the desired target is the...

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