Peripheral oxygen saturation level (SPO2) is one of the simplest and most common noninvasive measurements in medicine, particularly during anesthesia and sleep. SPO2 is calculated from the the photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals which are commonly recorded by photo sensors. Generally, PPG signals can be recorded by photo sensors placed anywhere on the body that there is a capillary with bone support. The most common recording location is fingertip due to its accessibility. However, fingertip recording has the drawback that it may fall off during the night, and could be inconvenient for some patients [1]. Other locations such as ear lobes, toe, and upper airway have also been used for PPG recording [2–4]; they suffer from the same limitation as those of recording at fingertip though.

In this study, we investigated the feasibility of designing a miniature system to be placed inside mouth...

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