Although widely used in microsurgery, conventional operating microscopes have been suggested to restrict and constrain postures, which are ergonomic risk factors for musculoskeletal fatigue and discomfort during prolonged procedures [1,2]. Specifically, microscope use over 3 hr a week has been associated with neck pain among 339 plastic surgeons [3].

Alternative video display systems may provide ergonomic benefits (e.g., improved postures) during microsurgery and improve team performance and communication [1]. Early studies on 3D displays for microsurgery were met with optimism from surgeons, but technological limitation caused frequent interruptions. Despite these potential ergonomic and performance benefits, many studies observed that video systems increased microsurgery completion times in comparison to conventional microscopes. However, it is important to note that postoperative ratings on procedure quality were not significantly different between the displays [1].

As 3D displays and stereoscopic...

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