Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac disorder. It was reported that about 2.3 × 106 American adults have AF in 2001, and this number would increase to 5.6 × 106 by the year of 2050 [1]. AF can lead to stroke and other heart problems. The risk of stroke is increased fivefold in AF patients [2].

There are mainly two types of AF: paroxysmal, where the arrhythmia terminates spontaneously after two episodes and persistent, when it sustains beyond 7 days [3]. Radiofrequency isolation of the pulmonary veins (PVs) has been successfully applied to the interventional treatment of paroxysmal AF [4]. However, efficacy of PV isolation is limited in persistent AF [5]. This suggests different mechanisms behind these two types of AF.

To target ablation sites, a variety of methods have been...

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