The human body has two circulation systems: the systemic circulation and the pulmonary circulation. An elevation of blood pressure in either system is referred to as hypertension. PH is elevated blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs. Normal mean PA pressure is about 14 mm Hg at rest. If this pressure is greater than 25 mm Hg at rest, it is classified as PH. According to the World Health Organization, PH is classified in five groups (I–V), with each group characterized by its etiology and pathogenesis. It is important to accurately diagnose the type of PH for treatment planning and disease management. A right heart catheterization (RHC) procedure remains the gold standard that can definitively diagnose PH. Numerous other techniques are being developed that, in conjunction with RHC, can aid in diagnoses of type, severity, cause, treatment options, and functional classification of PH [...

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