Over 5 × 106 Americans are currently affected by atrial fibrillation (AF), and as the population continues to age the incidence is expected to rise 2.5 fold by 2050 [1]. Radiofrequency (RF) and cryoablation are routinely used to treat AF to hopefully be a curative treatment. Yet, development of pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis is facilitated following cardiac ablation procedures. Although it is frequently asymptomatic, it may become a potentially life threatening condition: as the degree of stenosis escalates typically the severities of symptoms increase as well.

Noteworthy in one study, 15.6% (3.4% severe, 4.4% moderate, and 7.7% mild PV stenosis) of patients were reported to develop PV narrowing 3.5 months after RF ablation procedures; it was considered that PV stenosis progression subsides 3 months following ablation procedures [2]. However, it has also been reported that 2 yr following RF ablation,...

References

References
1.
Miyasaka
,
Y.
,
Barnes
,
M. E.
,
Gersh
,
B. J.
,
Cha
,
S. S.
,
Bailey
,
K. R.
,
Abhayaratna
,
W. P.
,
Seward
,
J. B.
, and
Tsang
,
T. S. M.
,
2006
, “
Secular Trends in Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1980 to 2000, and Implications on the Projections for Future Prevalence
,”
Circulation
,
114
(
2
), pp.
119
125
.10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.595140
2.
Saad
,
E. B.
,
Rossillo
,
A.
,
Saad
,
C. P.
,
Martin
,
D. O.
,
Bhargava
,
M.
,
Erciyes
,
D.
,
Bash
,
D.
,
Williams-Andrews
,
M.
,
Beheiry
,
S.
,
Marrouche
,
N. F.
,
Adams
,
J.
,
Pisanò
,
E.
,
Fanelli
,
R.
,
Potenza
,
D.
,
Raviele
,
A.
,
Bonso
,
A.
,
Themistoclakis
,
S.
,
Brachmann
,
J.
,
Saliba
,
W. I.
,
Schweikert
,
R. A.
, and
Natale
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Pulmonary Vein Stenosis After Radiofrequency Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: Functional Characterization, Evolution, and Influence of the Ablation Strategy
,”
Circulation
,
108
(
25
), pp.
3102
3107
.10.1161/01.CIR.0000104569.96907.7F
3.
Arentz
,
T.
,
2003
, “
Incidence of Pulmonary Vein Stenosis 2 Years After Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Refractory Atrial Fibrillation
,”
Eur. Heart J.
,
24
(
10
), pp.
963
969
.10.1016/S0195-668X(03)00002-2
4.
Packer
,
D. L.
,
Kowal
,
R. C.
,
Wheelan
,
K. R.
,
Irwin
,
J. M.
,
Champagne
,
J.
,
Guerra
,
P. G.
,
Dubuc
,
M.
,
Reddy
,
V.
,
Nelson
,
L.
,
Holcomb
,
R. G.
,
Lehmann
,
J. W.
, and
Ruskin
,
J. N.
,
2013
, “
Cryoballoon Ablation of Pulmonary Veins for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: First Results of the North American Arctic Front (STOP AF) Pivotal Trial
,”
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol
,
61
(
16
), pp.
1713
1723
.10.1016/j.jacc.2012.11.064
5.
Venkatasubramanian
,
R. T.
,
Grassl
,
E. D.
,
Barocas
,
V. H.
,
Lafontaine
,
D.
, and
Bischof
,
J. C.
,
2006
, “
Effects of Freezing and Cryopreservation on the Mechanical Properties of Arteries
,”
Ann. Biomed. Eng.
,
34
(
5
), pp.
823
832
.10.1007/s10439-005-9044-x
6.
Kok
,
L. C.
,
Everett
,
T. H.
,
Akar
,
J. G.
, and
Haines
,
D. E.
,
2003
, “
Effect of Heating on Pulmonary Veins: How to Avoid Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
,”
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
,
14
(
3
), pp.
250
254
.10.1046/j.1540-8167.2003.02490.x
You do not currently have access to this content.