To deliver more value to the healthcare industry, a specialized surgical robot is needed in the minimally invasive surgery (MIS) field. To fill this need, a compact hybrid robotic wrist with four degrees of freedom (DOFs) is developed for assisting physicians to perform MIS. The main body of the wrist is a 2DOF parallel mechanism with a remote center-of-motion (RCM), which is located outside the mechanism. From the mechanical point of view, it is different from existing 2DOF spherical mechanisms, since there is no physical constraint on the RCM. Other DOFs of the wrist are realized by a revolute joint and a prismatic joint, which are serially mounted on the movable platform of the parallel mechanism. The function of these DOFs is to realize the roll motion and the in-out translation of the surgical tool. Special attention is paid to the parallel RCM mechanism. The detailed design is provided and the kinematic equations are obtained in the paper. Further, the Jacobian matrix is derived based on the kinematic equations. Finally, the paper examines the singularity configurations and implements the condition number analysis to identify the kinematic performance of the mechanism.

References

References
1.
Dai
,
J. S.
,
2010
, “
Editorial: Surgical Robotics and Its Development and Progress
,”
Robotica
,
28
(
2
), p.
161
.10.1017/S0263574709990877
2.
Guthart
,
G. S.
, and
Salisbury
,
J. K.
, Jr.
,
2000
, “
The Intuitive™ Telesurgery System: Overview and Application
,”
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA'00
), San Francisco, CA, Apr. 24–28, pp.
618
621
.10.1109/ROBOT.2000.844121
3.
Intuitive Surgical,
2014
, “
Investor Presentation Q1 2014
,” Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, accessed May Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, accessed May 7, 2014, http://www.intuitivesurgical.com
4.
Gomes
,
P.
,
2011
, “
Surgical Robotics: Reviewing the Past, Analyzing the Present, Imagining the Future
,”
Rob. Comput.-Integr. Manuf.
,
27
(
2
), pp.
261
266
.10.1016/j.rcim.2010.06.009
5.
Kuo
,
C. H.
,
Dai
,
J. S.
, and
Dasgupta
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Kinematic Design Considerations for Minimally Invasive Surgical Robots: An Overview
,”
Int. J. Med Rob. Comput. Assisted Surg.
,
8
(
2
), pp.
127
145
.10.1002/rcs.453
6.
Nabil
,
Z.
, and
Guillaume
,
M.
,
2007
, “
Mechatronic Design of a New Robot for Force Control in Minimally Invasive Surgery
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
2
(
2
), pp.
143
153
.10.1109/TMECH.2007.892831
7.
Zhang
,
X. L.
, and
Nelson
,
C. A.
,
2008
, “
Kinematic Analysis and Optimization of a Novel Robot for Surgical Tool Manipulation
,”
ASME J. Med. Devices
,
2
(
2
), p.
021003
.10.1115/1.2918740
8.
Stolzenburg
,
J. U.
,
Kallidonis
,
P.
,
Minh
,
D.
,
Dietel
,
A.
,
Häfner
,
T.
,
Dimitriou
,
D.
,
Al-Aown
,
A.
,
Kyriazis
,
I.
, and
Liatsikos
,
E. N.
,
2009
, “
Endoscopic Extraperitoneal Radical Prostatectomy: Evolution of the Technique and Experience With 2400 Cases
,”
J. Endourology
,
23
(
9
), pp.
1467
1472
.10.1089/end.2009.0336
9.
Voros
,
S.
,
Haber
,
G. P.
,
Menudet
,
J. F.
,
Long
,
J. A.
, and
Cinquin
,
P.
,
2010
, “
ViKY Robotic Scope Holder: Initial Clinical Experience and Preliminary Results Using Instrument Tracking
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
15
(
6
), pp.
879
886
.10.1109/TMECH.2010.2080683
10.
Taylor
,
R. H.
,
Jensen
,
P.
,
Whitcomb
,
L.
,
Barnes
,
A.
,
Kumar
,
R.
,
Stoianovici
,
D.
,
Gupta
,
P.
,
Wang
,
Z.-X.
,
deJuan
,
E.
, and
Kavoussi
,
L.
,
1999
, “
A Steady-Hand Robotic System for Microsurgical Augmentation
,”
Second International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention
(
MICCAI'99
), Cambridge, UK, Sept. 19–22, Vol.
1679
, pp.
1031
1041
.10.1007/10704282_112
11.
Kobayashi
,
Y.
,
Chiyoda
,
S.
,
Watabe
,
K.
,
Masafumi
,
O.
, and
Nakamura
,
Y.
,
2002
, “
Small Occupancy Robotic Mechanisms for Endoscopic Surgery
,”
5th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention
(
MICCAI 2002
), Tokyo, Japan, Sept. 25–28, Vol.
2488
, pp.
75
85
.10.1007/3-540-45786-0_10
12.
Autorino
,
R.
,
Kaouk
,
J. H.
,
Stolzenburg
,
J. U.
,
Gill
,
I. S.
,
Mottrie
,
A.
,
Tewari
,
A.
, and
Cadeddu
,
J. A.
,
2013
, “
Current Status and Future Directions of Robotic Single-Site Surgery: A Systematic Review
,”
Eur. Urol.
,
63
(
2
), pp.
266
280
.10.1016/j.eururo.2012.08.028
13.
Shaikh
,
S. N.
, and
Thompson
,
C. C.
,
2010
, “
Natural Orifice Translumenal Surgery: Flexible Platform Review
,”
World J. Gastrointest. Surg.
,
2
(
6
), pp.
210
216
.10.4240/wjgs.v2.i6.210
14.
Antoniou
,
S. A.
,
Pointner
,
R.
, and
Granderath
,
F. A.
,
2011
, “
Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Systematic Review
,”
Surg. Endoscopy
,
25
(
2
), pp.
367
377
.10.1007/s00464-010-1217-5
15.
Ahmed
,
K.
,
Wang
,
T. T.
,
Patel
,
V. M.
,
Nagpal
,
K.
,
Clark
,
J.
,
Ali
,
M.
,
Deeba
,
S.
,
Ashrafian
,
H.
,
Darzi
,
A.
,
Athanasiou
,
T.
, and
Paraskeva
,
P.
,
2011
, “
The Role of Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgery in Abdominal and Pelvic Surgery: A Systematic Review
,”
Surg. Endoscopy
,
25
(
2
), pp.
378
396
.10.1007/s00464-010-1208-6
16.
Xu
,
K.
,
Zhao
,
J. R.
, and
Shih
,
A. J.
,
2012
, “
Development of an Endoscopic Continuum Robot to Enable Transgastric Surgical Obesity Treatment
,”
5th International Conference
(
ICIRA 2012
), Montreal, QC, Canada, Oct. 3–5, pp.
589
600
.10.1007/978-3-642-33509-9_59
17.
Puglisi
,
L. J.
,
Saltaren
,
R. J.
,
Portoles
,
G. R.
,
Moreno
,
H.
,
Cardenas
,
P.
, and
Garcia
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Design and Kinematic Analysis of 3PSS-1S Wrist for Needle Insertion Guidance
,”
Rob. Auton. Syst.
,
61
(
5
), pp.
417
427
.10.1016/j.robot.2013.02.001
18.
Kuo
,
C. H.
, and
Dai
,
J. S.
,
2012
, “
Kinematics of a Fully-Decoupled Remote Center-of-Motion Parallel Manipulator for Minimally Invasive Surgery
,”
ASME J. Med. Devices
,
6
(
2
), p.
021008
.10.1115/1.4006541
19.
Shohan
,
M.
,
Baena
,
M.
,
Zehavi
,
E.
,
Joskowicz
,
L.
,
Batkilin
,
E.
, and
Kunicher
,
Y.
,
2003
, “
Bone-Mounted Miniature Robot for Surgical Procedures: Concept and Clinical Applications
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom.
,
19
(
5
), pp.
893
901
.10.1109/TRA.2003.817075
20.
Merlet
,
J. P.
,
2002
, “
Optimal Design for the Micro Parallel Robot MIPS
,”
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA '02
), Washington, DC, May 11–15, pp.
1149
1154
.10.1109/ROBOT.2002.1014698
21.
Li
,
J. M.
,
Zhang
,
G. K.
,
Muller
,
A.
, and
Wang
,
S. X.
,
2013
, “
A Family of Remote Center of Motion Mechanisms Based on Intersecting Motion Planes
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
135
(
9
), p.
091009
.10.1115/1.4024848
22.
Zlatanov
,
D.
,
Bonew
,
I. A.
, and
Gosselin
,
C. M.
,
2002
, “
Constraint Singularities of Parallel Mechanisms
,”
IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA '02
), Washington, DC, May 11–15, pp.
496
502
.10.1109/ROBOT.2002.1013408
23.
Lum
,
M. J. H.
,
Rosen
,
J.
,
Sinanan
,
M. N.
, and
Hannaford
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Kinematic Optimization of a Spherical Mechanism for a Minimally Invasive Surgical Robot
,”
IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA '04
), New Orleans, LA, Apr. 26–May 1, pp.
829
834
.10.1109/ROBOT.2004.1307252
You do not currently have access to this content.