Cyber physical systems (CPS) will increasingly play a role in the national research priority of “smart health” and wellbeing. Augmenting personal physical health by wearable and/or implanted biosensors and actuators is a primary CPS component. As constituents of the body area network (BAN), biosensors and actuators will enable personal and automated real-time diagnostics and health assessment, preventative maintenance, augmented reality, and ambulatory critical care.

Among the many obstacles that constrain the application space and prevent the adoption by the general public of personal biosensors and actuators are (a) lack of transparency and (b) nonintuitive installation. For example, state-of-the-art wearable sensing systems impose constraints on the host's physical activity, especially on those who are very physically active. In addition, in the case of therapeutics, wearable sensing systems may be visible, tangible, ever-present reminders of a disability. Most wearable systems rely on intimate skin contact; therefore, long-term...

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