Minimally invasive surgery is an operation that uses specially designed surgical tools inserted through small incisions to work on human tissue. Due to its distinct advantages such as minimizing incision size, shortening recovery time, and lowering infection risk, it has been widely implemented in hospitals around the world. However, because of friction and the long transmission distance between the grasper tip and tool handle, the surgeon cannot readily perceive the tactile information, which may adversely affect surgical efficiency and/or efficacy.

One method to address this issue is to incorporate force sensors on the jaws to measure clamp force [1,2] (Fig. 1), but this makes the grasper tip bulky and the grasping potentially less reliable. Another way to solve this problem is to attach a sensor on the distal end of the shaft near the grasper tip [3,4...

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