Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is replacing the open surgical approach to reduce pain, expedite patient recovery, shorten hospital stays and improve cosmetic results for many abdominal procedures. It is widely accepted that the increased technical difficulty of MIS approaches (difficult visualization, tool fulcrum effect, etc.) requires specialized surgical training. The fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) program has become a de facto standard to evaluate surgical skills for laparoscopic MIS [1].

Simulation-based surgical training has been growing not only as an innovative way to teach surgery [2] but also as a method to assess the skill of a surgeon in performing a procedure, without risk to patients [3]. However, cost and ease of access are two important limiting factors which make most surgical simulators ill suited for practical processing of high volumes of surgical trainees. We aim to develop a...

References

References
1.
Rattner
,
D. W.
,
Apelgren
,
K. N.
, and
Eubanks
,
W. S.
,
2001
, “
The Need for Training Opportunities in Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery
,”
Surg. Endoscopy
,
15
(10), pp.
1066
1670
.10.1007/s004640080021
2.
Kimura
,
T.
,
Kawabe
,
A.
,
Suzuki
,
K.
, and
Wada
,
H.
,
2006
, “
Usefulness of a Virtual Reality Simulator or Training Box for Endoscopic Surgery Training
,”
Surg. Endoscopy
,
20
(
4
), pp.
656
659
.10.1007/s00464-005-0190-x
3.
Munz
,
Y.
,
Almoudaris
,
A. M.
,
Moorthy
,
K.
,
Dosis
,
A.
,
Liddle
,
A., D.
, and
Darzi
,
A. W.
,
2007
, “
Curriculum-Based Solo Virtual Reality Training for Laparoscopic Intracorporeal Knot Tying: Objective Assessment of the Transfer of Skill From Virtual Reality to Reality
,”
Am. J. Surg.
,
193
(6), pp.
774
783
.10.1016/j.amjsurg.2007.01.022
4.
Yang
,
S. F.
,
Shiu
,
M. F.
,
Shiu
,
B. K.
, and
Lin
,
Y. H.
,
2012
, “
3D Position Tracking of Instruments in Laparoscopic Surgery Training
,”
1st Asia-Pacific Workshop on FPGA Applications
,
Xiamen
,
China
, December 8–9, pp.
50
55
.
5.
Zahiri
,
M.
,
Nelson
,
C. A.
, and
Siu
,
K. C.
,
2013
, “
Portable Laparoscopic Training System Using Virtual Reality
,” Design of Medical Devices Conference (DMD 2013), Minneapolis, MN, April 8–11, Paper No. DMD2013-1760.
6.
Yang
,
Y.
,
Cao
,
Q.
,
Lo
,
C.
, and
Zhang
,
Z.
,
2009
, “
Pose Estimation Based on Four Coplanar Point Correspondences
,” Sixth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (
FSKD '09
), Tianjin, China, August 14–16.10.1109/FSKD.2009.310
7.
Hartley
,
R.
, and
Zisserman
,
A.
,
2004
,
Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision
,
2nd ed.
,
Cambridge University
, Cambridge, UK.
8.
Hartenberg
,
R. S.
, and
Denavit
,
J.
,
1995
,
Kinematic Synthesis of Linkages
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.