Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is used for the treatment of patients with overactive bladder when first-line therapies, such as antimuscarinics, do not provide sufficient efficacy [1]. Recently, advances have been made in identifying optimal stimulation parameters [2–5], as well as neural pathways [6] and neurotransmitter systems that contribute to the neuromodulation's inhibitory effects on urinary micturition reflex [7]. However, neuromodulation of bladder function has usually been studied acutely (minutes) in anesthetized rats or cats and cannot address questions regarding continuous therapy in patients.

A few studies have used rodent models to evaluate chronic effects of neuromodulation [8–10]. These studies have shown positive effects, such as reducing the frequency of micturition in rat models of cystitis induced by intravesical administration of hydrochloric acid [8]. However, amount of stimulation varied significantly between studies as did the...

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