Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical treatment for a growing number of brain disorders including Parkinson's disease [1], depression [2], and dystonia [3]. DBS relies on accurate lead placement for the therapeutic delivery of electrical stimulation to dysfunctional brain regions while avoiding stimulation delivery to regions associated with untoward side effects [4]. Traditional DBS leads utilize annular electrode contacts, which produce a radially symmetric electric field. Suboptimal lead placement with traditional leads, therefore, often will result in stimulation-induced side effects at subtherapeutic stimulation amplitudes.

The traditional DBS lead design utilizes four annular contacts each with a height of 1.5 mm with 0.5 or 1.5 mm spacing between them. This arrangement and shape of electrodes require precise placement of the lead at the center of the targeted region to ensure minimal side effects during stimulation. Although highly...

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