Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided cardiac electrophysiological (EP) radio-frequency (RF) catheter ablation is a rapidly growing field for treatment of heart rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation and premature ventricular contractions [1]. Compared with fluoroscopy and ultrasound techniques for image-guided cardiac catheter therapies, cardiac MRI is a superior imaging modality for its high resolution and high contrast visualization of soft tissue. Despite its capability to provide excellent roadmaps for EP RF ablation, the risk of cardiac tissue perforation and steam pops, which occur primarily in the anterosuperior atrial walls and/or adjacent aorta [2,3], adversely affects the safety of the EP procedure. Perforation arises from (1) lack of tactile and force feedback and (2) the inability to adequately determine the catheter-tissue contact force (CF). Steam pops are mainly caused by an overheated catheter tip boiling the cardiac tissue. We hypothesized that...

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