In a TETS, alternating current in a primary coil generates a magnetic field that induces an alternating field in a secondary coil to transfer the power. The ratio between captured magnetic flux by the secondary coil and flux generated by primary coil is the coupling factor. Typical coupling factors for TETS range from 5 to 30%. These low coupling factors indicate that large fields and high flux intensity are needed to transfer the power even over relatively small distances. It is important to understand the electrical and magnetic field limits for safe operation.

A TETS can cause tissue damage by direct coil heating due to power losses in the coils or by exposure to the electromagnetic fields. Both magnetic and electrical fields are generated in a TETS as it operates as a loop antenna. The generated E-fields are small and are mostly shielded by the...

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