Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects up to 5 million people in the United States, and as the population continues to age, the incidence is expected to further increase. The overall cost associated with treatment for AF was estimated to be in excess of $6.5 billion dollars annually [1]. Currently, radiofrequency (RF) ablation is routinely used for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. In RF ablation, alternating current is applied to heat the myocardial tissues, inducing temperatures of 50 °C or higher that lead to the creation of a myocardial scar which is hopefully therapeutic [2].

However, when excessive and/or rapid tissue heating occurs, at temperatures of greater than 50 °C, cellular content may be vaporized and in some cases, an audible steam pop is heard. Although temperatures measured at the electrode tip may be considerably less than 50 °C, steam pop generation can...

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