Lumbar drains are used to remove cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the spinal column. This procedure can relieve intracranial pressure, caused by excess CSF, and assist in healing CSF leaks from the brain or spine after surgery or a head injury. To remove the fluid, a catheter is inserted into the subarachnoid space through the vertebrae using a Tuohy needle as shown in Figures 1(a)–1(d),
Fig. 1

Rarely (0.0 – 1.8% of the time) [1], the catheter fractures inside the patient's spine. This can cause major complications, and often requires surgical removal of the catheter fragment. Research has shown that one of the main causes of fracture is intentional or unintentional retraction of the catheter [2]. When difficulty with advancement of the catheter is encountered, there is a tendency to partially withdraw and then re-advance the catheter. Fracture is also caused...

References

References
1.
Forsythe
,
A.
,
Gupta
,
A.
, and
Cohen
,
S. P. M. D.
,
2009
, “
Retained Intrathecal Catheter Fragment After Spinal Drain Insertion: Steps for Prevention and Management
,” Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine,
34
(
4
), pp.
375
378
.
2.
Olivar
,
H.
, et al. ., 2007, “
Subarachnoid Lumbar Drains: A Case Series of Fractured Catheters and a Near Miss
,” Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthesie,
54
(
10
), pp.
829
834
.
3.
Dearnaley
,
G.
, and
Arps
,
J. H.
, 2005, “
Biomedical Applications of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) Coatings: A Review
,”
Surface & Coatings Technology
,
200
(
7
), pp.
2518
2524
.
4.
Bloomfield
,
I. G.
,
Johnston
,
I. H.
, and
Bilston
,
L. E.
, 1998, “
Effects of Proteins, Blood Cells and Glucose on the Viscosity of Cerebrospinal Fluid
, Pediatr Neurosurg,
28
(
5
), pp.
246
251
.
5.
Wolgemuth
,
L.
,
2002
. “
The Surface Modification Properties of Parylene for Medical Applications
,”
Business Briefing: Medical Device Manufacturing & Technology
.
6.
Grill
,
A.
, 1993, “
Review of the Tribology of Diamond-Like Carbon
,” Wear,
168
, pp.
143
153
.
7.
Hasebe
,
T.
, and
Hotta
,
A.
, 2007, “
Recent Advances in DiamondLike Carbon Films in the Medical and Food Packing Fields
,”
New Diamond and Frontier Carbon Technoloty
,
17
(
6
): pp.
263
279
.
8.
Roy
,
R. K.
, and
Lee
,
K. R.
, 2007, “
Biomedical Applications of Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings: A Review
,” J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B Appl. Biomater.,
83
(
1
), pp.
72
84
.
You do not currently have access to this content.