The number of Robot-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery (RMIS) procedures has grown immensely in recent years. The number of surgeries performed with the da Vinci (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) worldwide in 2005 was under 50,000. This number grew to more than 350,000 by 2011 [1]. RMIS procedures provide improved patient recovery time and reduced trauma due to smaller incisions relative to traditional open procedures.

Given the rise in RMIS procedures, several organizations and companies have made efforts to develop training and certification criteria for the da Vinci robot. Mimic technologies (Mimic, Seattle, WA) and Intuitive Surgical both produce virtual reality (VR) training simulators based on the da Vinci system. The Fundamentals of Robotic Surgery (FRS) consortium has been created with the goal of developing a standardized, high-stakes certification exam for robotic surgery [1]. While still in the development stage, this exam will...

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