Surgical procedures have been improved greatly through the use of minimally invasive techniques. These techniques allow the surgeon access to the abdomen of the body without the necessity of a large incision. The same reasons that allow laparoscopic procedures to produce limited scarring and reduced risk of infection hamper the surgeon. Passing long rigid tools through the skin requires advanced training for accurate control of the tools. As found by MacFarlane in [1], tool choice greatly affects the surgeon's ability to palpate and grasp tissue for diagnosis and manipulation so as to minimize trauma.

An improvement on laparoscopic procedures is the implementation of surgical robots. This route can return the intuitive nature of open surgeries through providing the surgeon direct control over the tool tip, while providing a stable, reliable platform. Through these robots and their respective human interfaces, the potential for passing...

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