Aging of the U.S. population has become a major health challenge during the 21st century. According to The State of Aging and Health in America 2007 [1], there will be 71 million American older adults, accounting for roughly 20% of the U.S. population by 2030. In general, aging is associated with profound changes in body composition and muscle strength, often resulting in reduced functional capacity. As a result, a large number of elderly individuals suffer from impaired mobility due to strength and endurance weakness in the lower extremity. With the impaired mobility, such individuals are more likely to live in a sedentary lifestyle, and suffer from the problems associated with the sedentary lifestyle, e.g. high blood pressure, depression, obesity, etc.

Currently, the dominant tool to restore the mobility of elderly persons is the wheelchair, which presents multiple problems in the daily use. Wheelchairs...

References

References
1.
Center for Disease Control and Prevention and The Merck Company Foundation, The State of Aging and Health in America 2007. Whitehouse Station, NJ: The Merck Company Foundation, 2007
.
2.
van der Kooij
,
H.
,
Koopman
,
B.
, and
van Asseldonk
,
E. H. F.
,
2008
, “
Body Weight Support by Virtual Model Control of an Impedance Controlled Exoskeleton (LOPES) for Gait Training
.”
Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference
, pp.
1969
1972
.
3.
Tsukahara
,
A.
,
Kawanishi
,
R.
,
Hasegawa
,
Y.
, and
Sankai
,
Y.
,
2010
, “
Sit-To-Stand and Stand-To-Sit Transfer Support for Complete Paraplegic Patients With Robot Suit HAL
,”
Adv. Robot.
,
24
(
11
), pp.
1615
1638
.
4.
Goldfarb
,
M.
,
Barth
,
E. J.
,
Gogola
,
M. A.
, and
Wehrmeyer
,
J. A.
,
2003
, “
Design and Energetic Characterization of a Liquid-Propellant-Powered Actuator for Self-Powered Robots
,”
IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics
,
8
(
2
), pp.
254
262
.
5.
Schenkman
,
M.
,
Berger
,
R.
,
Riley
,
P. O.
,
Mann
,
R. W.
, and
Hodge
,
W. A.
, “
Whole-Body Movements During Rising to Standing From Sitting
,”
Phys. Ther.
,
70
(
10
), pp.
638
648
.
6.
Winter
,
D. A.
,
The Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Gait: Normal, Elderly and Pathological
.
2nd edition
,
Waterloo, ON, University of Waterloo Press
,
1991
.
You do not currently have access to this content.