A diagnosis of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a condition in which there is an incomplete fusion of the valve of Foramen with the septum secundum or limbus within the atrial septum. In utero the fetus utilizes this right to left shunt to divert blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium, effectively bypassing the developing lungs. By adolescence, this flap valve should be closed to form a solid atrial septum. However, in many individuals there can be issues with total closure and a hole or tunnel can be present within the septum. It has been reported that about 25% of the adult population have such atrial defects, some of which may lead to potential clinical complications [1]. Therefore in some individuals, physicians will consider closing these PFOs with percutaneous delivered devices such as the Amplazter® device, Gore®...

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