Mechanical stimulation is essential for chondrocyte metabolism and cartilage matrix deposition. Traditional methods for evaluating developing tissue in vitro are destructive, time consuming, and expensive. Nondestructive evaluation of engineered tissue is promising for the development of replacement tissues. Here we present a novel instrumented bioreactor for dynamic mechanical stimulation and nondestructive evaluation of tissue mechanical properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) content. The bioreactor is instrumented with a video microscope and load cells in each well to measure tissue stiffness and an ultrasonic transducer for evaluating ECM content. Chondrocyte-laden hydrogel constructs were placed in the bioreactor and subjected to dynamic intermittent compression at 1 Hz and 10% strain for 1 h, twice per day for 7 days. Compressive modulus of the constructs, measured online in the bioreactor and offline on a mechanical testing machine, did not significantly change over time. Deposition of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) increased significantly after 7 days, independent of loading. Furthermore, the relative reflection amplitude of the loaded constructs decreased significantly after 7 days, consistent with an increase in sGAG content. This preliminary work with our novel bioreactor demonstrates its capabilities for dynamic culture and nondestructive evaluation.
An Instrumented Bioreactor for Mechanical Stimulation and Real-Time, Nondestructive Evaluation of Engineered Cartilage Tissue
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Popp, J. R., Roberts, J. J., Gallagher, D. V., Anseth, K. S., Bryant, S. J., and Quinn, T. P. (April 26, 2012). "An Instrumented Bioreactor for Mechanical Stimulation and Real-Time, Nondestructive Evaluation of Engineered Cartilage Tissue." ASME. J. Med. Devices. June 2012; 6(2): 021006. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4006546
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