For this study, we have collected puncture force data from the vasculature of the chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) of developing chicken embryos to examine forces required for retinal vein cannulation. The CAM vessels of a developing chicken embryo have been shown to be an appropriate model for human retinal veins. The effect of microneedle geometry and vessel size on puncture forces was investigated. The results of this work are important for researchers working on robotic vitreoretinal surgical systems.

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