Although hemodiafiltration is presumed to be a gold standard for higher convective therapy for kidney failure patients, the repetition of forward and backward filtration during hemodialysis increases the total filtration volume and convective clearance. Hence, the authors describe a new method of enhancing forward filtration and backfiltration. The devised method, named pulse push/pull hemodialysis (PPPHD), is based on the utilization of dual pulsation in a dialysate stream; namely, pulsatile devices in the dialysate stream both upstream (a dialysate pump) and downstream (an effluent pump) of the dialyzer. Fluid management accuracy of the unit was assessed using fresh bovine blood, and its hemodialytic performance was investigated in a canine renal failure model. Forward filtration rates during PPPHD were maintained at the levels of dialysate flow rates. Fluid balancing error was less than ±0.84% of total dialysate volume, when 97.4 ± 1.66L of pure dialysate was circulated for 4 hs. The animal remained stable without any complication. Urea and creatinine reductions were 56.9 ± 1.6 and 52.8 ± 2.3%, respectively, and albumin levels remained uniform throughout treatment. The devised PPPHD unit offers a simple, but efficient strategy of combined simultaneous diffusive and convective solute transport for ESRD patients, without the need for external replacement infusion.

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