Ultrasound Guided Foam Sclerotherapy is a treatment where a physician injects sclerosant foam along the length of a patient’s varicose vein. The same hypodermic needle is used to perform multiple injections on the same patient and in this example patient discomfort is a common complaint. If hypodermic needles were more efficient at passing through skin tissue, patient discomfort could be reduced. To develop solutions to achieve this, a method for testing hypodermic needle performance was required. For this investigation, a purpose built injection simulator was developed, which had the ability to perform injections in a consistent automated manner while measuring the forces exerted by the needle. Two possible skin substitutes were tested; the first was a synthetic material referred to as basic synthetic skin. This was medium density foam based and was highly consistent in structure. Butchered porcine belly was also...

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