For some postsurgical patients and stroke victims, a drainage bag is used to discharge urine. As a small and intermittent amount of urine drains down the small tube, urine needs to travel around the confined air bubbles that occupy the tube. As the urine squeezes through the gap between the air and the tube’s wall, the air bubbles slowly rise and allow urine to travel downward. The resistance of such film flow is significant and the urine may become stagnant or backflow, resulting in painful pressure on a sensitive part of the body. Bacterial colonization of catheters is common. Each day of catheter use increases the chance for the appearance of bacteria in the urine by 5%. These infections can have serious consequences, including death. Infections can be prevented by maintaining a closed drainage system, keeping high infection control standards and...

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