Abstract

Endoscopic endonasal surgery is a commonly practiced minimally invasive neurosurgical operation for the treatment of a wide range of skull base pathologies including pituitary tumors. A common shortcoming of this surgery is the necessity of a third hand when the endoscope has to be handled to allow active use of both hands of the main surgeon. The robot surgery assistant NeuRoboScope system has been developed to take over the endoscope from the main surgeon's hand while providing the surgeon with the necessary means of controlling the location and direction of the endoscope. One of the main novelties of the NeuRoboScope system is its human–robot interface designs which regulate and facilitate the interaction between the surgeon and the robot assistant. The human–robot interaction design of the NeuRoboScope system is investigated in two domains: direct physical interaction (DPI) and master–slave teleoperation (MST). The user study indicating the learning curve and ease of use of the MST is given and this paper is concluded via providing the reader with an outlook of possible new human–robot interfaces for the robot assisted surgery systems.

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