Many individuals with lower limb amputations or neuromuscular impairments face mobility challenges attributable to suboptimal assistive device design. Forward dynamic modeling and simulation of human walking using conventional biomechanical gait models offer an alternative to intuition-based assistive device design, providing insight into the biomechanics underlying pathological gait. Musculoskeletal models enable better understanding of prosthesis and/or exoskeleton contributions to the human musculoskeletal system, and device and user contributions to both body support and propulsion during gait. This paper reviews current literature that have used forward dynamic simulation of clinical population musculoskeletal models to perform assistive device design optimization using optimal control, optimal tracking, computed muscle control (CMC) and reflex-based control. Musculoskeletal model complexity and assumptions inhibit forward dynamic musculoskeletal modeling in its current state, hindering computational assistive device design optimization. Future recommendations include validating musculoskeletal models and resultant assistive device designs, developing less computationally expensive forward dynamic musculoskeletal modeling methods, and developing more efficient patient-specific musculoskeletal model generation methods to enable personalized assistive device optimization.