Mechanical loosening of implants is in the majority accompanied with a periprosthetic interface membrane, which has to be removed during revision surgery. The same is true if a minimal invasive (percutaneous) refixation of a loose implant is done. We describe the requirements for a waterjet applicator for interface tissue removal for this percutaneous hip refixation technique. The technical requirements were either obtained from a literature review, a theoretical analysis, or by experimental setup. Based on the requirements, a waterjet applicator is designed which is basically a flexible tube (outer diameter 3 mm) with two channels. One channel for the water supply (diameter 0.9 mm) and one for suction to evacuate water and morcellated interface tissue from the periprosthetic cavity. The applicator has a rigid tip (length 6 mm), which directs the water flow to create two waterjets (diameter 0.2 mm), both focused into the suction channel. The functionality of this new applicator is demonstrated by testing a prototype of the applicator tip in an in vitro experimental setup. This testing has shown that the designed applicator for interface tissue removal will eliminate the risk of water pressure buildup; the ejected water was immediately evacuated from the periprosthetic cavity. Blocking of the suction opening was prevented because the jets cut through interface tissue that gets in front of the suction channel. Although further development of the water applicator is necessary, the presented design of the applicator is suitable for interface tissue removal in a minimally invasive hip refixation procedure.

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