Attendant wheelchairs provide a means to transport patients or mobility to people with walking disability. They can be attendant propelled, which are highly maneuverable in confined spaces, but offer no power assistance. Also, they can be electric powered with joystick control interface, which provides power assistance, but not as maneuverable as the attendant propelled wheelchair. With the objective of providing power assistance and having excellent maneuverability, this paper presents a motorized attendant wheelchair with haptic interface. Its control approach is based on virtual/desired dynamics, which is not the true dynamics of the wheelchair, but a mathematical model describing the motion behavior of a desired system. The desired dynamics takes the user's applied force/torque and yields desired velocities of the wheelchair. In the evaluation, tasks in confined spaces that require a lot of maneuvers were given and performed using the motorized wheelchair with haptic and joystick control interfaces. The results in terms of task completion times showed that motorized wheelchair with haptic significantly outperformed the motorized wheelchair with joystick interface. In addition, the performance of the motorized with haptic interface and attendant propelled wheelchairs were evaluated at two different loads. At heavy load, the task completion times of motorized wheelchair with haptic interface were comparable to the attendant propelled wheelchair.

References

References
1.
Aha Hospital Statistics
, 2018, “
American Hospital Association Hospital Statistics
,”
Aha Hospital Statistics,
Chicago, IL, accessed Apr. 4, 2018, https://www.aha.org/statistics/fast-facts-us-hospitals
2.
Mongrain
,
C.
,
2016
, “
Patient Transport Expert Article on Injuries in Healthcare Facilities
,” The Experts Robson Forensic, Lancaster, PA, accessed Apr. 4, 2018, https://www.robsonforensic.com/articles/patient-transport-expert-witness
3.
Abel
,
E.
, and
Frank
,
T.
,
1991
, “
The Design of Attendant Propelled Wheelchairs
,”
Prost. Orthotics Int.
,
15
, pp.
38
45
.http://www.oandplibrary.org/poi/pdf/1991_01_038.pdf
4.
Dicianno
,
B.
,
Cooper
,
R.
, and
Coltellano
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Joystick Control for Powered Mobility: Current State of Technology and Future Directions
,”
Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. N. Am.
,
21
(1), pp.
76
89
.
5.
Montesano
,
L.
,
Díaz
,
M.
,
Bhaskar
,
B.
, and
Minguez
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Towards an Intelligent Wheelchair System for Users With Cerebral Palsy
,”
IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng.
,
18
(
2
), pp.
193
202
.
6.
Grindle
,
G.
,
Wang
,
H.
,
Jeannis
,
H.
,
Teodorski
,
E.
, and
Cooper
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Design and User Evaluation of a Wheelchair Mounted Robotic Assisted Transfer Device
,”
BioMed Res. Int.
,
2015
, pp.
1
9
.
7.
Wang
,
H.
,
Tsai
,
C.
,
Jeanis
,
H.
,
Chung
,
C.
,
Kelleher
,
A.
,
Grindle
,
G.
, and
Cooper
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Stability Analysis of Electrical Powered Wheelchair-Mounted Robotic Assisted Transfer Device
,”
J. Rehabi. Res. Develop.
,
51
(
5
), pp.
761
774
.
8.
Boucher
,
P.
,
Atrash
,
A.
,
Kelouwani
,
S.
,
Honoré
,
W.
,
Nguyen
,
H.
,
Villemure
,
J.
,
Routhier
,
F.
,
Cohen
,
P.
,
Demers
,
L.
,
Forget
,
R.
, and
Pineau
,
J.
,
2013
, “
Design and Validation of an Intelligent Wheelchair Towards a Clinically-Functional Outcome
,”
J. NeuroEng. Rehabil.
,
10
(
1
), p.
16
.
9.
Candiotti
,
J.
,
Wang
,
H.
,
Chung
,
C.
,
Kamaraj
,
D.
,
Grindle
,
G.
,
Shino
,
M.
, and
Cooper
,
R.
,
2016
, “
Design and Evaluation of a Seat Orientation Controller During Uneven Terrain Driving
,”
J. Medical Eng. Phys.
,
38
(
3
), pp.
241
247
.
10.
Chuy
,
O.
,
Collins
,
E. G.
,
Ordonez
,
C.
,
Candiotti
,
J.
,
Wang
,
H.
, and
Cooper
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Slip Mitigation Control for an Electric Powered Wheelchair
,”
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA
), Hong Kong, China, May 31–June 7, pp.
333
338
.
11.
D'Angelo
,
L.
,
Abdul-Sater
,
K.
,
Pfluegl
,
F.
, and
Lueth
,
T.
,
2015
, “
Wheelchair Models With Integrated Transfer Support Mechanisms and Passive Actuation
,”
ASME J. Med. Devices
,
9
(1), p. 011012.
12.
Nelson
,
A.
, and
Baptiste
,
A.
,
2006
, “
Evidence-Based Practices for Safe Patient Handling and Movement
,”
Orthop. Nursing
,
25
(6), pp.
366
379
.
13.
Chou
,
H.
,
Prataksita
,
N.
,
Lin
,
Y.
, and
Kuo
,
C.-H.
,
2014
, “
P300 and Motor Imagery Based Brain-Computer Interface for Controlling Wheelchairs
,”
ASME J. Med. Devices
,
8
(3), p. 030906.
14.
Liadis
,
K.
,
2006
, “
Design of a Power-Assist Hemiplegic Wheelchair
,”
M.S. thesis
, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA.https://web.wpi.edu/Pubs/ETD/Available/etd-050906-160656/unrestricted/Keith_Liadis_ETD.pdf
15.
Hadj-Abdelkader
,
M.
,
Bourhis
,
G.
, and
Cherki
,
B.
,
2012
, “
Haptic Feedback Control of a Smart Wheelchair
,”
J. Appl. Bionics Biomech.
,
9
(
2
), pp.
181
192
.
16.
Morere
,
Y.
,
Abdelkader
,
M. H.
,
Cosnuau
,
K.
,
Guilmois
,
G.
, and
Bourhis
,
G.
,
2015
, “
Haptic Control for Powered Wheelchair Driving Assistance
,”
IRBM
,
36
(
5
), pp.
293
304
.
17.
Kakimoto
,
A.
,
Matsuda
,
H.
, and
Sekiguchi
,
Y.
,
1997
, “
Development of Power-Assisted Attendant-Propelled Wheelchair
,”
International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
, Chicago, IL, Oct. 30–Nov. 2, pp.
1875
1876
.
18.
Suzuki
,
T. H.
,
Uchiyama
,
C. H.
, and
Tyler
,
N.
,
2012
, “
Assisting Control for Attendant Propelled Wheelchair Based on Force Velocity Relationship
,”
34th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS
, San Diego, CA, Aug. 29–Sept. 1, pp.
3073
3076
.
19.
Zhu
,
C.
,
Nakayama
,
T.
,
Shibayama
,
M.
,
Yoshioka
,
M.
,
Liang
,
H.
,
Yan
,
Y.
,
Yu
,
H.
,
Nakajima
,
J.
, and
Shibasaki
,
H.
,
2015
, “
A Novel Power Add-on Unit for Attendant Propelled Wheelchairs With Sensorless Speed Control and Power Assistance
,”
IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics
(
ICORR
), Singapore, Aug. 11–14, pp.
786
791
.
20.
Jafari
,
N. K. A.
, and
Tavakoli
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Haptics to Improve Task Performance in People With Disabilities: A Review of Previous Studies and a Guide to Future Research With Children With Disabilities
,”
J. Rehabil. Assistive Technol. Eng.
,
3
, pp.
1
13
.
21.
Harrison
,
C.
,
Grant
,
M.
, and
Conway
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Haptic Interfaces for Wheelchair Navigation in the Built Environment
,”
Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ.
,
13
(
5
), pp.
520
534
.
22.
Chenier
,
F.
,
Bigras
,
P.
, and
Aissaoui
,
R.
,
2014
, “
A New Wheelchair Ergometer Designed as an Admittance-Controlled Haptic Robot
,”
IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatronics
,
19
(
1
), pp.
321
328
.
23.
Pawluk
,
D. T. V.
,
Adams
,
R. J.
, and
Kitada
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Designing Haptic Assistive Technology for Individuals Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired
,”
IEEE Trans. Haptics
,
8
(
3
), pp.
258
278
.
24.
Trujillo-León
,
A.
, and
Vidal-Verdu
,
F.
,
2014
, “
Driving Interface Based on Tactile Sensors for Electric Wheelchairs or Trolleys
,”
Sensors
,
14
(
2
), pp.
2644
2662
.
25.
Poorten
,
E. V.
,
Demeester
,
E. A. H.
,
Reekmans
,
E.
,
Philips
,
J.
, and
Schutter
,
J. D.
,
2012
, “
Backwards Maneuvering Powered Wheelchairs With Haptic Guidance
,”
Haptics: Perception, Devices, Mobility, and Communication. EuroHaptics 2012
, (Series of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 7282), P. Isokoski, and J. Springare, eds., Springer, Berlin.
26.
Brienza
,
D.
, and
Angelo
,
J.
,
1996
, “
A Force Feedback Joystick and Control Algorithm for Wheelchair Obstacle Avoidance
,”
Disability Rehabil.
,
18
(
3
), pp.
123
129
.
27.
Craig
,
J.
,
2004
,
Introduction to Robotics: Mechanism and Control
,
Pearson
, London.
28.
Spong
,
M.
,
Hutchinson
,
S.
, and
Vidyasagar
,
M.
,
2006
,
Robot Modeling and Control
,
Wiley
, Hoboken, NJ.
29.
Chenier
,
F.
,
Bigras
,
P.
, and
Aissaoui
,
R.
,
2011
, “
A New Dynamic Model of the Manual Wheelchair for Straight and Curvilinear Propulsion
,”
IEEE
International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics
, Zurich, Switzerland, June 29–July 1, pp.
1
5
.
You do not currently have access to this content.