Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) options are limited for patients with dysfunctional single ventricle physiology. To address this unmet clinical need, we are developing an axial-flow blood pump to provide mechanical assistance to the cavopulmonary circulation. In this study, we investigate the use of high-resolution cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize the complex fluid flow conditions of mechanical circulatory assist in two patient-specific Fontan anatomies. A three-bladed axial-flow impeller coupled to a supportive cage with a four-bladed diffuser was positioned in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of each Fontan anatomy. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and power efficiency studies were conducted at physiologic relevant parameters with cardiac outputs of 2, 3, and 4 L/min with impeller rotational speeds of 2000 and 4000 rpm. The axial-flow impeller was able to generate improved flow in the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). The higher rotational speed was able to redistribute flow in the TCPC anastomosis aiding in removing stagnant blood. No retrograde flow was observed or measured in the superior vena cava (SVC). As an extension of the CMR data, a scalar stress analysis was performed on both models and found a maximum scalar stress of approximately 42 Pa for both patient anatomies. The power efficiency experiments demonstrated a maximum energy gain of 8.6 mW for TCPC Anatomy 1 and 12.58 mW for TCPC Anatomy 2 for a flow rate of 4 L/min and at 4000 rpm. These findings support the continued development of axial blood pumps for mechanical cavopulmonary assist.
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Mechanical Cavopulmonary Assistance
Science and Health Systems,
Bossone Research Enterprise Center,
Philadelphia, PA 19104
Manuscript received June 13, 2017; final manuscript received June 15, 2018; published online November 5, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Rosaire Mongrain.
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Chopski, S. G., Whitehead, K., Englehardt, G. J., and Throckmorton, A. (November 5, 2018). "Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Mechanical Cavopulmonary Assistance." ASME. J. Med. Devices. March 2019; 13(1): 011001. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4041414
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