Noninvasive ventilator support using bi-level positive airway pressure/continuous positive airway pressure (BiPAP/CPAP) is commonly utilized for chronic medical conditions like sleep apnea and neuromuscular disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that lead to weakness of respiratory muscles. Generic masks come in standard sizes and are often perceived by patients as being uncomfortable, ill-fitting, and leaky. A significant number of patients are unable to tolerate the masks and eventually stop using their devices. The goal of this project is to develop custom-fit masks to increase comfort, decrease air leakage, and thereby improve patient compliance. A single-patient case study of a patient with variant ALS was performed to evaluate the custom-fit masks. His high nose bridge and overbite of lower jaw caused poor fit with generic masks, and he was noncompliant with his machine. Using desktop Stereolithography three-dimensional (3D) printing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, a generic mask was extended with a rigid interface such that it was complementary to the patient's unique facial contours. Patient or clinicians interactively select a desired mask shape using a newly developed computer program. Subsequently, a compliant silicone layer was applied to the rigid interface. Ten different custom-fit mask designs were made using computer-aided design software. Patient evaluated the comfort, extent of leakage, and satisfaction of each mask via a questionnaire. All custom-fit masks were rated higher than the standard mask except for two. Our results suggest that modifying generic masks with a 3D-printed custom-fit interface is a promising strategy to improve compliance with BiPAP/CPAP machines.
Custom-Fit Three-Dimensional-Printed BiPAP Mask to Improve Compliance in Patients Requiring Long-Term Noninvasive Ventilatory Support
Manuscript received November 10, 2017; final manuscript received April 17, 2018; published online July 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Matthew R. Myers.
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Wu, Y. Y., Acharya, D., Xu, C., Cheng, B., Rana, S., and Shimada, K. (July 13, 2018). "Custom-Fit Three-Dimensional-Printed BiPAP Mask to Improve Compliance in Patients Requiring Long-Term Noninvasive Ventilatory Support." ASME. J. Med. Devices. September 2018; 12(3): 031003. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4040187
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