The distal head of the natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) platform commonly uses the structure of a snake bone, which cannot rotate, and the manufacturing is often time-consuming. A novel rotatable, one-element snake bone for NOTES is proposed. This paper first describes the movement mechanism and actuation. The new structure, which is composed of hinge pairs for bending and track-sled rings for rotation, was designed to reach a 90 deg bending angle and 62 deg rotational angle. The workspace of the snake bone was derived using screw theory and was simulated on matlab. The relationship between the angle and wire displacement was analyzed in detail. The new snake bone system bent and rotated by manipulating control wires that were actuated by DC motors, and its angular movements were measured by motion sensors with an angle error within ±2.6 deg. The snake bone was mounted on a flexible tube, inserted into a colonoscopy model, and navigated by motor actuation to eventually reach the cecum. The experimental results demonstrate the new snake bone's ability to travel through a natural orifice by rotating and bending, which satisfies the mobility requirement for NOTES.

References

References
1.
Kalloo
,
A. N.
,
Singh
,
V. K.
,
Jagannath
,
S. B.
,
Niiyama
,
H.
, and
Hill
,
S. L.
,
2004
, “
Flexible Transgastric Peritoneoscopy: A Novel Approach to Diagnostic and Therapeutic Interventions in the Peritoneal Cavity
,”
Gastrointest. Endosc.
,
60
(
1
), pp.
114
117
.
2.
Zhou
,
Y.
,
Ren
,
H.
,
Meng
,
M. Q.-H.
,
Tse
,
Z. T. H.
, and
Yu
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Robotics in Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery
,”
J. Mech. Med. Biol.
,
13
(
2
), p.
1350044
.
3.
Mummadi
,
R. R.
, and
Pasricha
,
P. J.
,
2008
, “
The Eagle or the Snake: Platforms for NOTES and Radical Endoscopic Therapy
,”
Gastrointest. Endosc. Clin. N. Am.
,
18
(
2
), pp.
279
289
.
4.
Pourghodrat
,
A.
,
Nelson
,
C. A.
, and
Oleynikov
,
D.
,
2017
, “
Hydraulic Robotic Surgical Tool Changing Manipulator
,”
ASME J. Med. Devices
,
11
(
1
), p.
011008
.
5.
Kim
,
Y.-J.
,
Cheng
,
S.
,
Kim
,
S.
, and
Iagnemma
,
K.
,
2014
, “
A Stiffness-Adjustable Hyperredundant Manipulator Using a Variable Neutral-Line Mechanism for Minimally Invasive Surgery
,”
IEEE Trans. Rob.
,
30
(
2
), pp.
382
395
.
6.
Li
,
Z.
, and
Du
,
R.
,
2013
, “
Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot
,”
Int. J. Adv. Rob. Syst.
,
10
(
4
), p.
209
.
7.
Ayvali
,
E.
,
Liang
,
C. P.
,
Ho
,
M.
,
Chen
,
Y.
, and
Desai
,
J. P.
,
2012
, “
Towards a Discretely Actuated Steerable Cannula for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures
,”
Int. J. Rob. Res.
,
31
(
5
), pp.
588
603
.
8.
Devreker
,
A.
,
Rosa
,
B.
,
Desjardins
,
A.
,
Alles
,
E. J.
, and
Garcia-Peraza
,
L. C.
,
2015
, “
Fluidic Actuation for Intra-Operative In Situ Imaging
,”
IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
(
IROS
), Hamburg, Germany, Sept. 28–Oct. 2, pp. 1415–1421.
9.
Son
,
J.
,
Cho
,
C. N.
,
Kim
,
K. G.
,
Chang
,
T. Y.
,
Jung
,
H.
,
Kim
,
S. C.
,
Kim
,
M. T.
,
Yang
,
N.
,
Kim
,
T. Y.
, and
Sohn
,
D. K.
,
2015
, “
A Novel Semi-Automatic Snake Robot for Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery: Preclinical Tests in Animal and Human Cadaver Models (With Video)
,”
Surg. Endosc.
,
29
(
6
), pp.
1643
1647
.
10.
Shen
,
T.
,
Nelson
,
C. A.
,
Warburton
,
K.
, and
Oleynikov
,
D.
,
2015
, “
Design and Analysis of a Novel Articulated Drive Mechanism for Multifunctional NOTES Robot
,”
ASME J. Mech. Rob.
,
7
(
1
), p.
011004
.
11.
Patel
,
N.
,
Seneci
,
C. A.
,
Shang
,
J.
,
Leibrandt
,
K.
,
Yang
,
G. Z.
,
Darzi
,
A.
, and
Teare
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Evaluation of a Novel Flexible Snake Robot for Endoluminal Surgery
,”
Surg. Endosc.
,
29
(
11
), pp.
3349
3355
.
12.
Tan
,
Z.
, and
Ren
,
H.
, 2014, “
Design and Actuation of a Snake-like Robot for Minimally Invasive Surgeries
,”
15th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering
, Singapore, Dec. 4–7, pp.
28
31
.
13.
Harvin
,
G.
,
2014
, “
Review of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Prevention in the Endoscopy Practitioner
,”
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
,
48
(
7
), pp.
590
594
.
14.
Richard
,
M.
,
Murray
,
Z. L.
, and
Shankar Sastry
,
S.
,
1994
,
A Mathematical Introduction to Robotic Manipulation
,
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton, FL
.
15.
Weng
,
Z.
,
Liu
,
T.
,
Wu
,
C.
, and
Cao
,
Z.
,
2016
, “
Mechanism Design and Kinematic Performance Research of Snake-Like Robot With Orthogonal Active Wheels
,”
Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots II
(Mechanisms and Machine Science), Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp.
603
615
.
16.
Zhang
,
A.
,
Liu
,
B.
,
Liu
,
J.
, and
Xie
,
T.
,
2017
, “
Design of a Rotatable One-Element Snake Bone for NOTES
,”
ASME
Paper No. DMD2017-3410.
You do not currently have access to this content.