This paper investigates the energy transmitted to and harvested by a camera pill traveling along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It focuses on the transmitted electromagnetic (EM) energy in the frequency range of 0.18 to 2450 MHz and compares it to the mechanical energy due to the motion of the pill and the force exerted from the intestine in its peristalsis onto the pill, and the electrochemical energy due to the change of pH along the path of the pill. A comprehensive multilayer EM power transmission model is constructed and implemented in a numerical code, including power attenuation through each layer and multireflections at material interfaces. Computer simulations of EM power transmission through a multilayer abdomen to a pill traveling in the intestine are presented for the human abdominal cavity as well as phantom organs and phantom environments, coupled with corresponding experimental studies using these phantom components and environments. Two types of phantom abdomen are investigated: a ballistic gel and a multilayer duck breast. Phantom small intestine involves gelatin gel layers with embedded phantom chyme. Due to limitations related to the energy safety limit of skin exposure and energy losses in the transmission through the abdomen and intestines, inductive range frequencies are recommended which may yield energy harvesting of 10–50 mWh during 8 h of pill journey, complemented by about 10 mWh of mechanical energy and 10 mWh of electrochemical energy harvesting, in addition to about 330 mWh typically stored in the coin batteries of a camera pill.
Numerical and Experimental Simulations of the Wireless Energy Transmission and Harvesting by a Camera Pill
Manuscript received May 3, 2017; final manuscript received February 11, 2018; published online March 19, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Chris Rylander.
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Shumbayawonda, E., Salifu, A. A., Lekakou, C., and Cosmas, J. P. (March 19, 2018). "Numerical and Experimental Simulations of the Wireless Energy Transmission and Harvesting by a Camera Pill." ASME. J. Med. Devices. June 2018; 12(2): 021002. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4039390
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