Retransfusion of a patient's own shed blood during cardiac surgery is attractive since it reduces the need for allogeneic transfusion, minimizes cost, and decreases transfusion related morbidity. Evidence suggests that lipid micro-emboli associated with the retransfusion of the shed blood are the predominant causes of the neurocognitive disorders. We have developed a novel acoustophoretic filtration system that can remove lipids from blood at clinically relevant flow rates. Unlike other acoustophoretic separation systems, this ultrasound technology works at the macroscale, and is therefore able to process larger flow rates than typical micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) scale acoustophoretic separation devices. In this work, we have first demonstrated the systematic design of the acoustic device and its optimization, followed by examining the feasibility of the device to filter lipids from the system. Then, we demonstrate the effects of the acoustic waves on the shed blood; examining hemolysis using both haptoglobin formation and lactate dehydrogenase release, as well as the potential of platelet aggregation or inflammatory cascade activation. Finally, in a porcine surgical model, we determined the potential viability of acoustic trapping as a blood filtration technology, as the animal responded to redelivered blood by increasing both systemic and mean arterial blood pressure.

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