Tremor, characterized by involuntary and rhythmical movements, is the most common movement disorder. Tremor can have peripheral and central oscillatory components which properly assessed may improve diagnostics. A magnetic resonance (MR)-safe haptic wrist manipulator enables simultaneous measurement of proprioceptive reflexes (peripheral components) and brain activations (central components) through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The presented design for an MR-safe haptic wrist manipulator has electrohydraulic closed-circuit actuation, optical position and force sensing, and consists of exclusively nonconductive and magnetically compatible materials inside the MR-environment (Zone IV). The MR-safe hydraulic actuator, a custom-made plastic vane motor, is connected to the magnetic parts and electronics located in the shielded control room (Zone III) via hydraulic hoses and optical fibers. Deliberate internal leakage provides backdriveability, damping, and circumvents friction. The manipulator is completely MR-safe and therefore operates safely in any MR-environment while ensuring fMRI imaging quality. Undesired external leakage in the actuator prevented the use of prepressure, limiting the control bandwidth. The compact end effector design fits in the MR-scanner, is easily setup, and can be clamped to the MR-scanner bed. This enables use of the manipulator with the subject at the optimal fMRI location and allows it to be setup quickly, saving costly MR-scanner time. The actuation and sensor solutions performed well inside the MR-environment and did not deteriorate image quality, which allows for various motor control experiments. Enabling prepressure by carrying out the recommendations on fabrication and sealing should improve the bandwidth and fulfill the requirements for proprioceptive reflex identification.

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