Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is performed on a regular basis in the clinic to create complex radiation fields to treat cancer, but it has not been implemented in microradiotherapy (mRT) for preclinical systems. A multileaf collimator (MLC) is an integral part of a radiotherapy system that allows IMRT application. Presented here is the development of a key component of an open source mRT system for preclinical research. We have designed and fabricated a binary micro multileaf collimator (bmMLC) for mRT that can provide 1 mm or better resolution at isocenter and attenuate over 98% of a 250 kVp X-ray beam. This is the smallest collimator system designed for RT systems, with 20 brass leaves, each 0.5 mm thick, creating a physical field opening of 1 cm × 1 cm. The mode of actuation for the leaves was rotational, rather than linear, which is typical in larger clinical RT systems. The design presented here met the identified design requirements and represents a rigorous design process, during which several less successful designs were investigated and eventually discarded. After the fabrication of the design, dosimetric characteristics were tested and requirements were met. The final bmMLC designs and technical documents are made available as open-source.

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