Prior studies have linked microbial contamination of intravenous (IV) ports and stopcocks with postoperative infections. Existing technologies to address contamination are not consistently utilized because of the time and effort they require. Herein, novel barrier devices were created that form a protective shell to passively prevent contact between injection sites and practitioner hands or environmental surfaces while still allowing rapid connection of a syringe for injection of medications via an opening in the shell. Prototypes were tested using a grossly contaminated environment and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-bioluminescence assay. For eight pairs of unshielded versus shielded IV ports/stopcocks, average contamination was 4102 versus 35 RLU (p < 0.02), respectively, indicating that the devices could significantly reduce IV port/stopcock contamination.

References

References
1.
Loftus
,
R. W.
,
Koff
,
M. D.
,
Brown
,
J. R.
,
Patel
,
H. M.
,
Jensen
,
J. T.
,
Reddy
,
S.
,
Ruoff
,
K. L.
,
Heard
,
S. O.
,
Yeager
,
M. P.
, and
Dodds
,
T. M.
,
2015
, “
The Epidemiology of Staphylococcus Aureus Transmission in the Anesthesia Work Area
,”
Anesth. Analg.
,
120
(
4
), pp.
807
818
.
2.
Loftus
,
R. W.
,
Brown
,
J. R.
,
Patel
,
H. M.
,
Koff
,
M. D.
,
Jensen
,
J. T.
,
Reddy
,
S.
,
Ruoff
,
K. L.
,
Heard
,
S. O.
,
Dodds
,
T. M.
,
Beach
,
M. L.
, and
Yeager
,
M. P.
,
2015
, “
Transmission Dynamics of Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens in the Anesthesia Work Area
,”
Anesth. Analg.
,
120
(
4
), pp.
819
826
.
3.
Gargiulo
,
D. A.
,
Mitchell
,
S. J.
,
Sheridan
,
J.
,
Short
,
T. G.
,
Swift
,
S.
,
Torrie
,
J.
,
Webster
,
C. S.
, and
Merry
,
A. F.
,
2016
, “
Microbiological Contamination of Drugs During Their Administration for Anesthesia in the Operating Room
,”
Anesthesiology
,
124
(
4
), pp.
785
794
.
4.
Loftus
,
R. W.
,
Brindeiro
,
B. S.
,
Kispert
,
D. P.
,
Patel
,
H. M.
,
Koff
,
M. D.
,
Jensen
,
J. T.
,
Dodds
,
T. M.
,
Yeager
,
M. P.
,
Ruoff
,
K. L.
,
Gallagher
,
J. D.
,
Beach
,
M. L.
, and
Brown
,
J. R.
,
2012
, “
Reduction in Intraoperative Bacterial Contamination of Peripheral Intravenous Tubing Through the Use of a Passive Catheter Care System
,”
Anesth. Analg.
,
115
(
6
), pp.
1315
1323
.
5.
Loftus
,
R. W.
,
Patel
,
H. M.
,
Huysman
,
B. C.
,
Kispert
,
D. P.
,
Koff
,
M. D.
,
Gallagher
,
J. D.
,
Jensen
,
J. T.
,
Rowlands
,
J.
,
Reddy
,
S.
,
Dodds
,
T. M.
,
Yeager
,
M. P.
,
Ruoff
,
K. L.
,
Surgenor
,
S. D.
, and
Brown
,
J. R.
,
2012
, “
Prevention of Intravenous Bacterial Injection From Health Care Provider Hands: The Importance of Catheter Design and Handling
,”
Anesth. Analg.
,
115
(
5
), pp.
1109
1119
.
6.
Moureau
,
N. L.
, and
Flynn
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Disinfection of Needleless Connector Hubs: Clinical Evidence Systematic Review
,”
Nurs. Res. Pract.
,
2015
.
7.
Koff
,
M. D.
,
Loftus
,
R. W.
,
Burchman
,
C. C.
,
Schwartzman
,
J. D.
,
Read
,
M. E.
,
Henry
,
E. S.
, and
Beach
,
M. L.
,
2009
, “
Reduction in Intraoperative Bacterial Contamination of Peripheral Intravenous Tubing Through the Use of a Novel Device
,”
Anesthesiology
,
110
(
5
), pp.
978
985
.
8.
Menyhay
,
S. Z.
, and
Maki
,
D. G.
,
2006
, “
Disinfection of Needleless Catheter Connectors and Access Ports With Alcohol May Not Prevent Microbial Entry: The Promise of a Novel Antiseptic-Barrier Cap
,”
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol.
,
27
(
1
), pp.
23
27
.
9.
Holroyd
,
J. L.
,
Paulus
,
D. A.
,
Rand
,
K. H.
,
Enneking
,
F. K.
,
Morey
,
T. E.
, and
Rice
,
M. J.
,
2014
, “
Universal Intravenous Access Cleaning Device Fails to Sterilize Stopcocks
,”
Anesth. Analg.
,
118
(
2
), pp.
333
343
.
10.
Sandberg
,
W. S.
, and
Talbot
,
T. R.
,
2016
, “
Injection Rhymes With Infection?
,”
Anesthesiology
,
124
(
4
), pp.
752
754
.
You do not currently have access to this content.