The management of health through daily monitoring of respiration is of major importance for early diagnosis to prevent respiratory and circulatory diseases. Such daily health monitoring is possible only if the monitoring system is physically and psychologically noninvasive. However, current unconstrained measurement methods cannot distinguish chest and abdominal movements in diagnosing sleep apnea. In this study, a flexible and stretchable tactile sensor sheet was developed to measure the static body pressure of a subject who lies on it and measure the pressure fluctuations induced by respiration or respiratory efforts. The results were compared with the measurements by band sensors that are widely used for measuring chest and abdominal movements in clinic. It was demonstrated that the sensor sheet can distinguish chest and abdominal movements in a supine position. The reasons why the pressure fluctuations measured by the sensor sheet are antiphase with the outputs of band sensors are discussed using a simple dynamic model.

References

References
1.
Punjabi
,
N.
,
2008
, “
The Epidemiology of Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea
,”
Proc. Am. Thorac. Soc.
,
5
(
2
), pp.
136
143
.
2.
Sakakibara
,
H.
,
2013
,
Sleep Apnea Syndrome
,
T.
Shiomi
, ed.,
Asakura Publishing
,
Tokyo, Japan
, Chap. 2 (in Japanese).
3.
Kelly
,
J.
,
Strecker
,
R.
, and
Bianchi
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Recent Developments in Home Sleep-Monitoring Devices
,”
ISRN Neurol.
,
2012
, p.
768794
.
4.
Collop
,
N.
,
Tracy
,
S.
,
Kapur
,
V.
,
Mehra
,
R.
,
Kuhlmann
,
D.
,
Fleishman
,
S.
, and
Ojile
,
J.
,
2011
, “
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Devices for Out-of-Center (OOC) Testing: Technology Evaluation
,”
J. Clin. Sleep Med.
,
7
(5), pp.
531
548
.
5.
Collop
,
N.
,
Anderson
,
W.
,
Boehlecke
,
B.
,
Claman
,
D.
,
Goldberg
,
R.
,
Gottlieb
,
D. J.
,
Hudgel
,
D.
,
Sateia
,
M.
, and
Schwab
,
R.
,
2007
, “
Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Unattended Portable Monitors in the Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adult Patients
,”
J. Clin. Sleep Med.
,
3
(
7
), pp.
737
747
.http://www.noronquesmas.com/uploads/55554150b8c82.pdf
6.
Cardozo
,
J.
,
2008
, “
New AASM Recommendations for Sensors: A Simple Guide for the Sleep Technologist
,”
Sleep Diagn. Ther.
,
21
(
3
), pp.
20
21
.
7.
Xu
,
W.
,
Gu
,
C.
,
Li
,
C.
, and
Sarrafzadeh
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Robust Doppler Radar Demodulation Via Compressed Sensing
,”
Electron. Lett.
,
48
(
22
), pp.
1428
1430
.
8.
Lee
,
Y. S.
,
Pathirana
,
P. N.
,
Steinfort
,
C. L.
, and
Caelli
,
T.
,
2014
, “
Monitoring and Analysis of Respiratory Patterns Using Microwave Doppler Radar
,”
IEEE J. Transl. Eng. Health Med.
,
2
, p.
1800912
.
9.
Chazal
,
P.
,
Fox
,
N.
,
O'Hare
,
E.
,
Heneghan
,
C.
,
Zaffaroni
,
A.
,
Boyle
,
P.
,
Smith
,
S.
,
O'Connell
,
C.
, and
McNicholas
,
W. T.
,
2011
, “
Sleep/Wake Measurement Using a Non-Contact Bio-Motion Sensor
,”
J. Sleep Res.
,
20
(
2
), pp.
356
366
.
10.
Xia
,
J.
, and
Siochi
,
R.
,
2012
, “
A Real-Time Respiratory Motion Monitoring System Using KINECT: Proof of Concept
,”
Med. Phys.
,
39
(
5
), pp.
2682
2685
.
11.
Kuo
,
Y.
,
Lee
,
J.
, and
Chung
,
P.
,
2010
, “
A Visual Context-Awareness-Based Sleeping-Respiration Measurement System
,”
IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed.
,
14
(
2
), pp.
255
265
.
12.
Sato
,
K.
, and
Aoki
,
Y.
,
2012
, “
Screening System for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Fiber Grating Sensor With Two Cameras
,”
Jpn. Soc. Med. Imaging Technol.
,
30
(
2
), pp.
73
82
(in Japanese).
13.
Choi
,
B.
,
Chung
,
G.
,
Lee
,
J.
,
Jeong
,
D.
, and
Park
,
K.
,
2009
, “
Slow-Wave Sleep Estimation on a Load-Cell-Installed Bed: A Non-Constrained Method
,”
Physiol. Meas.
,
30
(
11
), pp.
1163
1170
.
14.
Paalasmaa
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Monitoring Sleep With Force Sensor Measurement
,”
Doctoral thesis
, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/42609
15.
Kurihara
,
Y.
, and
Watanabe
,
K.
,
2012
, “
Development of Unconstrained Heartbeat and Respiration Measurement System With Pneumatic Flow
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Circuits Syst.
,
6
(
6
), pp.
596
604
.
16.
Nishyama
,
M.
,
Miyamoto
,
M.
, and
Watanabe
,
K.
,
2011
, “
Respiration and Body Movement Analysis During Sleep in Bed Using Hetero-Core Fiber Optic Pressure Sensors Without Constraint to Human Activity
,”
J. Biomed. Opt.
,
16
(
1
), p.
017002
.
17.
Beattie
,
Z.
,
Hayes
,
T.
,
Guilleminault
,
C.
, and
Hagen
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Accurate Scoring of the Apnea-Hypopnea Index Using a Simple Non-Contact Breathing Sensor
,”
J. Sleep Res.
,
22
(
3
), pp.
356
362
.
18.
Bruser
,
C.
,
Kerekes
,
A.
,
Winter
,
S.
, and
Leonhardt
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Multi-Channel Optical Sensor-Array for Measuring Balisto-Cardiograms and Respiratory Activity in Bed
,”
34th Annual International Conference of the
IEEE
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Diego, CA, Aug. 28–Sept. 1, Vol.
4
, pp.
5042
5045
.
19.
Zhu
,
X.
,
Chen
,
W.
,
Nemoto
,
T.
,
Kanemitsu
,
Y.
,
Kitamura
,
K.
,
Yamakoshi
,
K.
, and
Wei
,
D.
,
2006
, “
Real-Time Monitoring of Respiration Rhythm and Pulse Rate During Sleep
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
53
(
12
), pp.
2553
2563
.
20.
Su
,
Y.
,
Skubic
,
H.
, and
Rosales
,
L.
,
2012
, “
Pulse Rate Estimation Using Hydraulic Bed Sensor
,”
34th Annual International Conference of the
IEEE
Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, San Diego, CA, Aug. 28–Sept. 1, Vol.
4
, pp.
2587
2590
.
21.
Kortelainen
,
J.
,
Mendez
,
M.
,
Bianchi
,
A.
,
Matteucci
,
M.
, and
Cerutti
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Sleep Staging Based on Signals Acquired Through Bed Sensor
,”
IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed.
,
14
(
3
), pp.
776
785
.
22.
Chiu
,
Y.
,
Lin
,
W.
,
Wang
,
H.
,
Huang
,
S.
, and
Wu
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Development of a Piezoelectric Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Polymer-Based Sensor Patch for Simultaneous Heartbeat and Respiration Monitoring
,”
Sens. Actuators, A
,
189
(
15
), pp.
328
334
.
23.
Lapi
,
S.
,
Lavorini
,
F.
,
Borgioli
,
G.
,
Calzolai
,
M.
,
Masotti
,
L.
,
Pistolesi
,
M.
, and
Fontana
,
G. A.
,
2014
, “
Respiratory Rate Assessments Using a Dual-Accelerometer Device
,”
Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol.
,
191
(
15
), pp.
60
66
.
24.
Helfenbein
,
E.
,
Babaeizadeh
,
S.
,
Lindauer
,
J.
, and
Zhou
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Electrocardiogram/Electromyogram-Derived Respiration in the Presence of Simulated Respiratory Disease
,”
J. Electrocardiol.
,
44
(
6
), pp.
751
752
.
25.
Meredith
,
D.
,
Clifton
,
D.
,
Charlton
,
P.
,
Brooks
,
J.
,
Pugh
,
C. W.
, and
Tarassenko
,
L.
,
2012
, “
Photoplethysmographic Derivation of Respiratory Rate: A Review of Relevant Physiology
,”
J. Med. Eng. Technol.
,
36
(
1
), pp.
1
7
.
26.
Mukai
,
T.
,
Matsuo
,
K.
,
Kato
,
Y.
,
Shimizu
,
A.
, and
Guo
,
S.
,
2014
, “
Unconstrained Measurement of Lying Posture, Respiration and Heartbeat Using a Tactile Sensor on a Bed
,”
Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng.
,
80
(
815
), p.
BMS0215
(in Japanese).
27.
Matsuo
,
K.
,
Mukai
,
T.
,
Kato
,
Y.
, and
Guo
,
S.
,
2015
, “
Unconstrained Measurement of Respiration and Heartbeat Using a Flexible Tactile Sensor Sheet
,”
Trans. Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng.
,
81
(
826
), p.
14-00642
(in Japanese).
28.
Liu
,
J.
,
Huang
,
M.
,
Xu
,
W.
,
Zhang
,
X.
,
Stevens
,
L.
,
Alshurafa
,
N.
, and
Sarrafzadeh
,
M.
,
2015
, “
BreathSens: A Continuous On-Bed Respiratory Monitoring System With Torso Localization Using an Unobtrusive Pressure Sensing Array
,”
IEEE J. Biomed. Health Inf.
,
19
(
5
), pp.
1682
1688
.
29.
Romei
,
M.
,
Mauro
,
A.
,
D'Angelo
,
M. G.
,
Turconi
,
A. C.
,
Bresolin
,
N.
,
Pedotti
,
A.
, and
Aliverti
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Effects of Gender and Posture on Thoraco-Abdominal Kinematics During Quiet Breathing in Healthy Adults
,”
Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol.
,
172
(
3
), pp.
184
191
.
30.
Kaneko
,
H.
, and
Horie
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Breathing Movements of the Chest and Abdominal Wall in Healthy Subjects
,”
Respir. Care
,
57
(
9
), pp.
1442
1451
.
31.
West
,
J.
,
1995
,
Respiratory Physiology
,
Springer
,
New York
.
32.
Fenn
,
W.
, and
Rahn
,
H.
,
1965
,
Handbook of Physiology: Respiration
,
American Physiological Society
,
Washington, DC
.
33.
Verschakelen
,
J.
, and
Demedts
,
M.
,
1995
, “
Normal Thoraco-Abdominal Motions: Influence of Sex, Age, Posture, and Breath Size
,”
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
,
151
(
2
), pp.
399
405
.
You do not currently have access to this content.