Biomechanical energy harvesters (BMEHs) have shown that useable amounts of electricity can be generated from daily movement. Where access to an electrical power grid is limited, BMEHs are a viable alternative to accommodate energy requirements for portable electronics. In this paper, we present the detailed design and dynamic model of a lower limb-driven energy harvester that predicts the device output and the load on the user. Comparing with existing harvester models, the novelty of the proposed model is that it incorporates the energy required for useful electricity generation, stored inertial energy, and both mechanical and electrical losses within the device. The model is validated with the lower limb-driven energy harvester in 12 unique configurations with a combination of four different motor and three different electrical resistance combinations (3.5 Ω, 7 Ω, and 12 Ω). A case study shows that the device can generate between 3.6 and 15.5 W with an efficiency between 39.8% and 72.5%. The model was able to predict the harvester output peak voltage within 5.6 ± 3.2% error and the peak force it exerts on the user within 9.9 ± 3.4% error over a range of parameter values. The model will help to identify configurations to achieve a high harvester efficiency and provide a better understanding of how parameters affect both the timing and magnitude of the load felt by the user.

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