In 2014, between 210,000 and 440,000 Americans suffered from preventable medical errors [1]. Many new studies have conclusively linked a patient's risk of experiencing an adverse event to their surgeon's previous surgical experience [2]. Thousands of hours of practice and training are necessary for surgical students to understand how to safely manipulate tissues during surgery [3]. Force control of surgical tools is an extremely important aspect of surgery. Even relatively small forces exerted on tissue for short durations, if improper, can cause necrosis, infection, bleeding, or scar tissue formation [4].

Force control is particularly important for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) because fixed trocar positions create a fulcrum effect, add friction, and constrain movement, while endoscopes are largely limited to 2D, which makes depth perception more difficult.

Despite this need, current MIS training programs focus primarily on a...

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