Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have become an accepted method of treating end-stage heart failure over the last few decades. Typically, for left-heart failure, either a pulsatile-flow or a continuous-flow VAD is connected to the apex of the left ventricle either by direct insertion or by means of a cannula for blood uptake. The VAD delivers blood to the aorta via an anastomosed graft, thus bypassing the aortic valve.

Implanting and connecting a VAD can be an extensive and invasive surgical procedure usually requiring the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and a full sternotomy, which result in a procedure taking several hours. The employment of CPB can lead to a variety of issues from postoperative blood coagulation to detrimental end-organ function. Performing cardiac surgeries without the use of CPB can potentially decrease the duration of a portion of the surgical procedure from hours to minutes [...

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