Spinal surgery is believed to be one of the most high-risk surgeries since any damages to the spinal cord may cause paralysis or even death. Traditionally, the spinal surgery is manually performed. The long duration of surgery will cause the surgeon's fatigue, which will reduce the surgery quality. Some researchers have tried to use robot to assist surgeons to improve the surgery accuracy and efficiency. An Israel company has marketed a parallel robot to help surgeons to guide the tools and implants (Renaissance Guidance System, Mazor Robotics®, Caesarea, Israel) [1]; Ortmaier et al. designed a robot for accurate placement of pedicle screws with the help of an optical navigation system [2]; Chung et al. designed a robot to insert pedicle screws in the spinal fusion procedure [3]; and Hu et al. developed a spinal surgical robot and successfully recognized the different states...

You do not currently have access to this content.