Assessment for spine deformity patients currently still relies on 2D plain radiographs. However, pathological spine, such as scoliosis and kyphosis, is truly a three-dimensional problem, so the ideal imaging should be shown in 3D [1]. In the past decades, various approaches related to 3D reconstruction of the spine have been proposed [2–4], but very few of them have been applied to clinical use [5]. Thoracic rib cage deformity is a combined disorder between the ribs and vertebrae. The progression of the rib cage deformity may trigger cardiopulmonary damage to the patients because the smaller thoracic volume restricts the expansion space of the lungs. Traditionally, the pulmonary function test (PFT) is used to evaluate the function of the lungs. However, PFTs are not routinely utilized in some cases, especially in very young patients (normally prior to 10 yrs...

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