Airway interventions and management, such as laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation, and cricothyrotomy, are important medical skills, and improvements to the existing training models are expected [1]. Because loss of airway function associates with immediate risk of fatality, securing this function is the first crucial step in many medical cases. Therefore, various methods or products, in terms of physical mannequins, virtual reality (VR) systems [2,3], and augmented or mixed reality (AR/MR) training modules [4,5], have been developed for medical professionals to safely prepare this skill set before delivering the clinical techniques to real lives [6].

Recent technology advances in medical imaging, visualization, and fast-prototyping have enabled us to design new airway mannequins with greater detail of anatomy and to produce them in a cost-efficient manner. Innovations in VR interfaces, wearable or comfortable sensors [7...

References

References
1.
Schebesta
,
K.
,
Hüpfl
,
M.
,
Rössler
,
B.
,
Ringl
,
H.
,
Müller
,
M. P.
, and
Kimberger
,
O.
,
2012
, “
Degrees of Reality: Airway Anatomy of High-Fidelity Human Patient Simulators and Airway Trainers
,”
Anesthesiology
,
116
(
6
), pp.
1204
1209
.
2.
Goldmann
,
K.
, and
Steinfeldt
,
T.
,
2006
, “
Acquisition of Basic Fiberoptic Intubation Skills With a Virtual Reality Airway Simulator
,”
J. Clin. Anesth.
,
18
(
3
), pp.
173
178
.
3.
Mayrose
,
J.
,
Kesavadas
,
T.
,
Chugh
,
K.
,
Joshi
,
D.
, and
Ellis
,
D. G.
,
2003
, “
Utilization of Virtual Reality for Endotracheal Intubation Training
,”
Resuscitation
,
59
(
1
), pp.
133
138
.
4.
Rolland
,
J.
,
Davis
,
L.
,
Hamza-Lup
,
F.
,
Daly
,
J.
,
Ha
,
Y.
,
Glenn
,
M.
,
Norfleet
,
J.
,
Thumann
,
R.
, and
Imielinska
,
C.
,
2003
, “
Development of a Training Tool for Endotracheal Intubation: Distributed Augmented Reality
,”
Stud. Health Technol. Inf.
,
94
, pp.
288
294
.
5.
Samosky
,
J. T.
,
Baillargeon
,
E.
,
Bregman
,
R.
,
Brown
,
A.
,
Chaya
,
A.
,
Enders
,
L.
,
Nelson
,
D. A.
,
Robinson
,
E.
,
Sukits
,
A. L.
, and
Weaver
,
R. A.
,
2011
, “
Real-Time ‘X-Ray Vision’ for Healthcare Simulation: An Interactive Projective Overlay System to Enhance Intubation Training and Other Procedural Training
,”
Stud. Health Technol. Inform.
,
163
, pp.
549
551
.
6.
Kennedy
,
C. C.
,
Cannon
,
E. K.
,
Warner
,
D. O.
, and
Cook
,
D. A.
,
2014
, “
Advanced Airway Management Simulation Training in Medical Education: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
,”
Crit. Care Med.
,
42
(
1
), pp.
169
178
.
7.
7-Sigma, and CREST
,
2014
, “
Smart Anatomical Airway Training Modules Conformable Sensor Technology
,”
University of Minnesota
, Minneapolis, MN.
8.
Konchada
,
V.
,
Shen
,
Y.
,
Burke
,
D.
,
Argun
,
O. B.
,
Weinhaus
,
A.
,
Erdman
,
A. G.
, and
Sweet
,
R. M.
,
2011
, “
The Minnesota Pelvic Trainer: A Hybrid VR/Physical Pelvis for Providing Virtual Mentorship
,”
Stud. Health Technol. Inf.
,
163
, pp.
280
282
.
9.
Salud
,
L. H.
,
Peniche
,
A. R.
,
Salud
,
J. C.
,
de Hoyos
,
A. L.
, and
Pugh
,
C. M.
,
2011
, “
Toward a Simulation and Assessment Method for the Practice of Camera-Guided Rigid Bronchoscopy
,”
Stud. Health Technol. Inform.
,
163
, pp.
535
541
.
10.
Chan
,
S.-M.
,
Wong
,
C.-S.
, and
Cherng
,
C.-H.
,
2009
, “
Determining an Optimal Tracheal Tube Cuff Pressure by the Feel of the Pilot Balloon: A Training Course for Trainees Providing Airway Care
,”
Acta Anaesthesiol. Taiwan
,
47
(
2
), pp.
79
83
.
You do not currently have access to this content.