Minimally invasive surgery (MIS), including laparoscopic procedures, has gained much popularity in modern medicine. They have been implemented for a variety of surgical procedures, providing an alternative to conventional open surgery techniques. Reducing the incision area, and unnecessary damage to tissue, has a number of advantages. Aside from decreasing overall operation trauma, there is a reduced risk of hemorrhaging and infection, better cosmetic outcomes, and shorter recovery and hospitalization times. Procedures for MIS, however, are disadvantageous in certain aspects for surgeons, who are required to remotely manipulate tissue through tools, which may limit range of motion, without the ability to directly observe the area being operated on. The development of surgical equipment that can enhance the capacity of surgeons to manipulate tissue is critical to the establishment of more effective and less injurious procedures.

Current approaches to MIS include the use of laparoscopic tools inserted...

References

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