Blood flow in a clinical metric with a variety of uses, namely, the diagnosing and longitudinal monitoring of patients with or at risk of cardiovascular disease. Currently, blood flow is able to be quantified through techniques including Doppler ultrasound (DUS), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The majority of these methods require an expensive, immobile device (MRI and CT) and a skilled technician to operate (DUS, MRI, and CT), thus are accessible to very few patients in need of the technology.

One of the diseases mainly associated with weak blood flow in the extremities is peripheral artery disease (PAD). With around 202 × 106 people afflicted with the disease worldwide, PAD presents a need for more accessible flow monitoring for patients and at risk individuals, as many living with the disease are asymptomatic [1].

A new scheme for estimating blood flow is explored to make...

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