Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an imaging approach to acquire high-resolution images of soft target tissue particularly for medical applications in both preoperative and intraoperative procedures [1]. In addition, MRI can be used to enhance the understanding of anatomy and pathology due to its capability to detect subtle changes of the target of interest. MRI-guided robotic therapy has drawn increasing attention due to its ability to provide accurate, efficient, and safe operation inside the MRI room. However, the magnetic field precludes the use of traditional direct current (DC) motors fabricated with ferromagnetic or paramagnetic materials in the magnetic resonance (MR) room as they affect the homogeneity of both the static and gradient magnetic field in the MRI scanner. Therefore, MR-conditional actuators should be designed to provide the safe actuation and ensure the image quality at the same time.

Unlike electric and electromagnetic actuators,...

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