During transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), nonmuscle invasive bladder tumors are excised using an electrocautery wire loop or a laser fiber. The device providing transurethral access for this procedure is a resectoscope. It consists of an endoscope lens to visualize the surgery site and a working element that extends/retracts the cautery loop through an inner/outer sheath.

Although TURBT is the gold standard for nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer, there remain several complications, such as bladder wall perforation, irrigant absorption (due to perforation), bleeding, and damage to ureteric orifices. These issues are generally attributed to tool and visualization limitations hindering performance [1]. Surgeons currently violate oncologic principles by removing tumors piece meal, thereby potentially contributing to tumor recurrence. There is an increasing interest in en-block resection to improve outcomes.

Robotic assistance can improve bladder cancer diagnosis or treatment by offering more dexterity and...

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