The brain and spinal cord are enclosed in bony compartments where they are suspended in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The pressure of this fluid is the intracranial pressure (ICP) and is 5–18 mm Hg in adults [1]. ICP measurement is vital for several neurological conditions. These include catastrophic diseases, such as brain bleeds, tumors, strokes, brain surgery, or traumatic brain injury, which cause large increases in ICP resulting in coma and death from brain compression. Other less serious conditions include idiopathic intracranial hypertension, craniosynostosis, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Elevated ICP may cause swelling of the optic nerve and alter blood flow within the central retinal artery. In some cases, the posterior eye globe can eventually be flattened. Yang et al. [2] suggested that elevated ICP can have a damaging effect on the optic nerve and visual acuity.

The gold standard for ICP...

References

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